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Orthognathic surgery outcome analysis: 3-dimensional landmark geometric morphometrics.

Author information

1
Hacettepe University, School of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, Ankara, Turkey. bcakirer@hacettepe.edu.tr

Abstract

Traditional cephalometric analysis of 2-dimensional (2D) landmarks has been limited to distances, indices, and angles. Quantitative results vary depending on what baseline is chosen. Geometric morphometric techniques, such as Procrustes superimposition, assume all landmarks carry equivalent information. Using these methods, landmark coordinates (x, y, z) facilitate comparison of patients and "normative"shapes and assessment of pre- to postoperative outcomes. Pre- and postoperative lateral and frontal cephalograms and stereophotograms were taken of a 48-year-old Caucasian man and a 38-year-old Caucasian woman. Coordinates of 3D hard tissue landmarks were collected directly from scanned cephalograms, and 3D soft tissue landmarks were collected onscreen. Procrustes superimpositions of pre- and postoperative 3D craniodental landmark coordinates and 3D soft tissue coordinates were made, and scatter plots were created to show the surgical shape change separately for each patient. Procrustes superimposition of the preoperative and "normative craniodental data (18-year-old male and female Bolton standards) provided both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the patients, allowing a better determination of the required treatment. Unlike traditional baseline-dependent methods, Procrustes shape analysis produces a single useful measure of surgical shape change or comparison to normative shape.

PMID:
12099316
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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