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Regul Pept. 2014 Feb 10;189:40-5. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2014.02.001. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

GLP-1 released to the mesenteric lymph duct in mice: effects of glucose and fat.

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Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.
Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:


Using a newly developed in vivo model measuring glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in gut lymphatics in mice, we quantified GLP-1 secretion in vivo after glucose versus fat ingestion with and without concomitant DPP-4 inhibition. The mesenteric lymphatic duct was cannulated in anesthetized C57BL6/J mice and lymph was collected in 30 min intervals. Glucose or fat emulsion (Intralipid®) (0.03, 0.1 or 0.3 kcal) with or without DPP-4-inhibition (NVP DPP728; 10 μmol/kg) was administered by gastric gavage. Basal intact GLP-1 levels were 0.37±0.04 pmol/l (n=61) in lymph compared to 0.07±0.03 in plasma (n=6; P=0.04) and basal DPP-4 activity was 4.7±0.3 pmol/min/μl in lymph (n=23) compared to 22.3±0.9 pmol/min/μl in plasma (n=8; P<0.001). Lymph flow increased from 1.2±0.1 μl/min to 2.3±02μl/min at 30 min after glucose and fat administration, with no difference between type of challenge or dose (n=81). Lymph GLP-1 levels increased calorie-dependently after both glucose and fat but with different time courses in that glucose induced a transient increase which had returned to baseline after 90 min whereas the lipid induced a sustained increase which was still elevated above baseline after 210 min. Lymph GLP-1 appearance during 210 min was two to three-fold higher after glucose (7.4±2.3 fmol at 0.3 kcal) than after isocaloric fat (2.9±0.8 fmol at 0.3 kcal; P<0.001). The slope between caloric load and lymph GLP-1 appearance was, however, identical after glucose and fat. We conclude that lymph GLP-1 is higher than plasma GLP-1 whereas lymph DPP-4 activity is lower than plasma DPP-4 activity and that both glucose and fat clearly stimulate GLP-1 secretion calorie-dependently in vivo but with different time courses.


DPP-4 inhibition; Fat; GLP-1; Glucose; Incretin secretion; Lymph

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