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J Food Prot. 2019 Jun;82(6):1022-1027. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-18-345.

Occurrence and Levels of Salmonella, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and Listeria in Raw Wheat.

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1 IEH Laboratories & Consulting Group, 15300 Bothell Way N.E., Lake Forest Park, Washington 98155.
2 The WhiteWave Foods Company, 1225 Seventeenth Street, Suite 1000, Denver, Colorado 80202.
3 ConAgra Foods, Inc., One ConAgra Drive, Omaha, Nebraska 68102, USA.


Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in raw wheat emphasizes the need to cook wheat products. 3,891 grain samples were tested for E. coli and Salmonella; 1,285 were tested for Listeria. Of wheat berries sampled, 0.44% were positive for E. coli and 1.23% were positive for Salmonella. Salmonella diversity was high, indicating various animal sources that are difficult to prevent. Cooking wheat products is the best preventative measure against foodborne illness from wheat.


; Foodborne illness; Raw dough; Raw wheat

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