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Neural Dev. 2017 Nov 15;12(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s13064-017-0097-y.

Novel functions of LHX2 and PAX6 in the developing telencephalon revealed upon combined loss of both genes.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India. shubhatole@gmail.com.

Abstract

Patterning of the telencephalic neuroepithelium is a tightly regulated process controlled by transcription factors and signalling molecules. The cortical primordium is flanked by two signalling centres, the hem medially, and the antihem laterally. The hem induces the formation of the hippocampus in adjacent neuroepithelium. Therefore, the position of the hem defines the position of the hippocampus in the brain. The antihem is positioned at the boundary between the dorsal and ventral telencephalon and proposed to provide patterning cues during development. LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factor LHX2 suppresses both hem and antihem fate in the cortical neuroepithelium. Upon loss of Lhx2, medial cortical neuroepithelium is transformed into hem, whereas lateral cortical neuroepithelium is transformed into antihem. Here, we show that transcription factor PAX6, known to regulate patterning of the lateral telencephalon, restricts this tissue from transforming into hem upon loss of Lhx2. When Lhx2 and Pax6 are both deleted, the cortical hem expands to occupy almost the complete extent of the cortical primordium, indicating that both factors act to suppress hem fate in the lateral telencephalon. Furthermore, the shift in the pallial-subpallial boundary and absence of the antihem, observed in the Pax6 mutant, are both restored in the Lhx2; Pax6 double mutant. Together, these results not only reveal a novel function for LHX2 in regulating dorsoventral patterning in the telencephalon, but also identify PAX6 as a fundamental regulator of where the hem can form, and therefore implicate this molecule as a determinant of hippocampal positioning.

KEYWORDS:

Craniofacial; Dorsoventral; Hem; Mediolateral; Organizer; Patterning

PMID:
29141678
PMCID:
PMC5688701
DOI:
10.1186/s13064-017-0097-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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