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J Biol Chem. 2011 May 6;286(18):16186-96. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.198952. Epub 2011 Mar 14.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by enabling the Ca2+-dependent inactivation of calcium release-activated calcium/orai channels normally prevented by mitochondria.

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Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Valladolid and Spanish Research Council, Valladolid, Spain.


Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation contributes to occlusive and proliferative disorders of the vessel wall. Salicylate and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit VSMC proliferation by an unknown mechanism unrelated to anti-inflammatory activity. In search for this mechanism, we have studied the effects of salicylate and other NSAIDs on subcellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and Ca(2+)-dependent cell proliferation in rat aortic A10 cells, a model of neointimal VSMCs. We found that A10 cells displayed both store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry (VOCE), the former being more important quantitatively than the latter. Inhibition of SOCE by specific Ca(2+) released-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC/Orai) channels antagonists prevented A10 cell proliferation. Salicylate and other NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, indomethacin, and sulindac, inhibited SOCE and thereby Ca(2+)-dependent, A10 cell proliferation. SOCE, but not VOCE, induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in A10 cells, and mitochondrial depolarization prevented SOCE, thus suggesting that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake controls SOCE (but not VOCE) in A10 cells. NSAIDs depolarized mitochondria and prevented mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that they favor the Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of CRAC/Orai channels. NSAIDs also inhibited SOCE in rat basophilic leukemia cells where mitochondrial control of CRAC/Orai is well established. NSAIDs accelerate slow inactivation of CRAC currents in rat basophilic leukemia cells under weak Ca(2+) buffering conditions but not in strong Ca(2+) buffer, thus excluding that NSAIDs inhibit SOCE directly. Taken together, our results indicate that NSAIDs inhibit VSMC proliferation by facilitating the Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of CRAC/Orai channels which normally is prevented by mitochondria clearing of entering Ca(2+).

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