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Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Aug;273(8):1995-9. doi: 10.1007/s00405-015-3663-0. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment.

Author information

1
Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh Voice Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
2
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
3
Department of ORL-Head and Neck Surgery, Louvain University Hospital of Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, Belgium.
4
Department of Voice, Speech and Hearing Disorders, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
5
Abteilung Hals-, Nasen- u Ohrenkrankheiten, Klinikum Klagenfurt am W├Ârthersee, Klagenfurt, Austria.
6
First Department of ORL-HNS of University of Athens, Hippocrateion General Hospital, Athens, Greece.
7
Department of Otolaryngology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
8
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands. f.g.dikkers@umcg.nl.

Abstract

The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold impairment. Overarching terms of vocal fold immobility and hypomobility are rigorously defined. This includes assessment techniques and inclusion and exclusion criteria for determining vocal fold immobility and hypomobility. In addition, criteria for use of the following terms have been outlined in detail: vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold immobility/hypomobility associated with mechanical impairment of the crico-arytenoid joint and vocal fold immobility/hypomobility related to laryngeal malignant disease. This represents the first rigorously defined vocal fold motion impairment nomenclature system. This provides detailed definitions to the terms vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis.

KEYWORDS:

Nomenclature; Vocal fold motion; Vocal fold paralysis; Vocal fold paresis

PMID:
26036851
PMCID:
PMC4930794
DOI:
10.1007/s00405-015-3663-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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