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J Neurochem. 2014 Apr;129(1):130-42. doi: 10.1111/jnc.12607. Epub 2013 Dec 1.

Neurovascular protection by post-ischemic intravenous injections of the lipoxin A4 receptor agonist, BML-111, in a rat model of ischemic stroke.

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Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.


Resolution of inflammation is an emerging new strategy to reduce damage following ischemic stroke. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4 ) is an anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution lipid mediator with high affinity binding to ALX, the lipoxin A4 receptor. Since LXA4 is rapidly inactivated, potent analogs have been created, including the ALX agonist BML-111. We hypothesized that post-ischemic intravenous administration of BML-111 would provide protection to the neurovascular unit and reduce neuroinflammation in a rat stroke model. Animals were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and BML-111 was injected 100 min and 24 h after stroke onset and animals euthanized at 48 h. Post-ischemic treatment with BML-111 significantly reduced infarct size, decreased vasogenic edema, protected against blood-brain barrier disruption, and reduced hemorrhagic transformation. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 were significantly reduced following BML-111 treatment. Administration of BML-111 dramatically decreased microglial activation, as seen with CD68, and neutrophil infiltration and recruitment, as assessed by levels of myeloperoxidase and intracellular adhesion molecule-1. The tight junction protein zona occludens-1 was protected from degradation following treatment with BML-111. These results indicate that post-ischemic activation of ALX has pro-resolution effects that limit the inflammatory damage in the cerebral cortex and helps maintain blood-brain barrier integrity after ischemic stroke.


blood-brain barrier; hemorrhagic transformation; matrix metalloproteinases; neuroinflammation; neutrophil recruitment; vasogenic edema

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