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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2016 Feb 19;371(1688):20150106. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0106. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Multifaceted origins of sex differences in the brain.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA mmccarth@umaryland.edu.

Abstract

Studies of sex differences in the brain range from reductionistic cell and molecular analyses in animal models to functional imaging in awake human subjects, with many other levels in between. Interpretations and conclusions about the importance of particular differences often vary with differing levels of analyses and can lead to discord and dissent. In the past two decades, the range of neurobiological, psychological and psychiatric endpoints found to differ between males and females has expanded beyond reproduction into every aspect of the healthy and diseased brain, and thereby demands our attention. A greater understanding of all aspects of neural functioning will only be achieved by incorporating sex as a biological variable. The goal of this review is to highlight the current state of the art of the discipline of sex differences research with an emphasis on the brain and to contextualize the articles appearing in the accompanying special issue.

KEYWORDS:

hypothalamus; sex chromosomes; steroid hormones

PMID:
26833829
PMCID:
PMC4785894
DOI:
10.1098/rstb.2015.0106
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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