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Brain Res Bull. 2007 Sep 14;74(1-3):66-74. Epub 2007 Jun 4.

Movement patterns of peak-dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson's disease.

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Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, PO Box 3045 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3P4.


The present study characterized involuntary movements associated with levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) in patients with Parkinson's disease. We used amplitude, proportional energy, frequency dispersion and sample entropy to determine whether LID movement patterns are truly random, as clinical description seems to suggest, or possess some underlying pattern that is not visible to the naked eye. LID was captured using a magnetic tracker system, which provided 3D rendering of whole-body LID. Patients were instructed to maintain a standing position, with arms extended in front of them. We compared the measurements of the dyskinetic PD group (DPD) with 10 patients without dyskinesias (NDPD) and 10 control subjects. In comparison to the other two groups, movement patterns from the DPD group had significantly higher amplitude, confirming the presence of dyskinesias. In addition, higher frequency components in the power spectrum of velocity were detected, suggestive of higher velocity in LID movement. Furthermore, there was a concentration in narrow frequency bands, which suggested stable oscillatory activity. Finally, sample entropy revealed more regularity in the DPD group. Although not statistically significant, we found that the amplitude from the NDPD group had a tendency to be smaller than those of controls. As well, the spectra were often more dispersed for the NDPD group. In conclusion, the present results suggest that LID cannot be considered as purely random movement since they possess some deterministic pattern of motion. This may provide a way for patients to adapt to these involuntary movements while performing voluntary motor acts.

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