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Immunol Lett. 2017 Jul;187:53-60. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2017.05.007. Epub 2017 May 16.

MAIT-cells: A tailor-made mate in the ancient battle against infectious diseases?

Author information

1
Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
2
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Affiliate of The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10016, USA.
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
4
Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address: vanessa@cpqrr.fiocruz.br.
5
Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address: jordana.reis@cpqrr.fiocruz.br.

Abstract

It has been almost two decades since the discovery of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT)-cells. Several advances in the field have been made such as the discovery of the antimicrobial activity of MAIT-cells, the abundance of these cells in human mucosa and in liver and the discovery of ligands able to bind MR1 and activate MAIT-cells. MAIT-cells are a unique subset of innate-like T-cells that express a canonical T-cell receptor with the alpha chain containing hAV7S2 and AJ33 in humans (TCRVα7.2Jα33) and respond to bacterial/fungus vitamin B2 metabolites by an MR1-dependent pathway. Indirect activation is also observed during chronic viral infections by and IL-12/IL-18 pathway. In this review, the mechanisms of activation, the timeline of MAIT-cell development in humans as well as their role in human infection are discussed. On the whole, we believe that harnessing the anti-microbial ability of MAIT-cells could contribute for the design of potent immunotherapies and vaccines against "hard-to-kill" infectious agents that remain as public health threats worldwide.

KEYWORDS:

CD161; Infectious diseases; MAIT-cells; MR1; TCRVα7.2; TRAV1-2

PMID:
28526582
DOI:
10.1016/j.imlet.2017.05.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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