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Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 May 3;12(5):1217-24. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2015.1126013. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalisation with A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) influenza in 2013-14: Results from the InNHOVE network.

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a Epicon0063ept , Paris , France.
b Instituto de Salud Pública de Navarra, IdiSNA, CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública , Spain.
c Inserm, CIC 1417 and F-CRIN, Innovative clinical research network in vaccinologie (I-REIVAC), Université Paris Descartes; Sorbonne Paris Cité ; Paris , France.
d Department of Epidemiology and Prevention , IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli (Isernia) , Italy.
e Service of Clinical Microbiology, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, IdiSNA , Pamplona , Spain.
f CHRU de Montpellier, Inserm, CIC 1411 and REIVAC , Montpellier , France.
g Department of Infectious Disease , Catholic University , Rome , Italy .


We conducted a multicentre test negative case control study to estimate the 2013-14 influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against hospitalised laboratory confirmed influenza in 12 hospitals in France, Italy and Spain. We included all ≥18 years hospitalised patients targeted by local influenza vaccination campaign reporting an influenza-like illness within 7 days before admission. We defined as cases patients RT-PCR positive for influenza and as controls those negative for all influenza virus. We used a logistic regression to calculate IVE adjusted for country, month of onset, chronic diseases and age. We included 104 A(H1N1)pdm09, 157 A(H3N2) cases and 585 controls. The adjusted IVE was 42.8% (95%CI: 6.3;65;0) against A(H1N1)pdm09. It was respectively 61.4% (95%CI: -1.9;85.4), 39.4% (95%CI: -32.2;72.2) and 19.7% (95%CI:-148.1;74.0) among patients aged 18-64, 65-79 and ≥80 years. The adjusted IVE against A(H3N2) was 38.1% (95%CI: 8.3;58.2) overall. It was respectively 7.8% (95%CI: -145.3;65.4), 25.6% (95%CI: -36.0;59.2) and 55.2% (95%CI: 15.4;76.3) among patients aged 18-64, 65-79 and ≥80 years. These results suggest a moderate and age varying effectiveness of the 2013-14 influenza vaccine to prevent hospitalised laboratory-confirmed influenza. While vaccination remains the most effective prevention measure, developing more immunogenic influenza vaccines is needed to prevent severe outcomes among target groups.


Influenza; Influenza vaccine; case control studies; hospital; multicentre studies

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