Format

Send to

Choose Destination

See 1 citation found by title matching your search:

Toxicol Sci. 2014 Sep;141(1):218-33. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu118. Epub 2014 Jun 23.

Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they?

Author information

1
European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy.
2
Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
3
National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks, Verneuil en Halatte, France.
4
National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks, Verneuil en Halatte, France Reims University, France.
5
Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Rome, Italy.
6
Department of Environmental Engineering,Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby, Denmark.
7
Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
8
Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, RECETOX, Brno, Czech Republic.
9
Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, King's College London, UK.
10
Marine Biology Station Piran, National Institute of Biology, Slovenia.
11
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
12
Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King's College London, UK.
13
Life Science Center, Örebro University, Sweden.
14
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway.
15
Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology, Eawag-EPFL, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
16
Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental Systems Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland EPF Lausanne, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lausanne, Switzerland.
17
Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale Vercelli Novara Alessandria, Alessandria, Italy.
18
European Commission-DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy teresa.lettieri@jrc.ec.europa.eu.

Abstract

The risk posed by complex chemical mixtures in the environment to wildlife and humans is increasingly debated, but has been rarely tested under environmentally relevant scenarios. To address this issue, two mixtures of 14 or 19 substances of concern (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, a surfactant, and a plasticizer), each present at its safety limit concentration imposed by the European legislation, were prepared and tested for their toxic effects. The effects of the mixtures were assessed in 35 bioassays, based on 11 organisms representing different trophic levels. A consortium of 16 laboratories was involved in performing the bioassays. The mixtures elicited quantifiable toxic effects on some of the test systems employed, including i) changes in marine microbial composition, ii) microalgae toxicity, iii) immobilization in the crustacean Daphnia magna, iv) fish embryo toxicity, v) impaired frog embryo development, and vi) increased expression on oxidative stress-linked reporter genes. Estrogenic activity close to regulatory safety limit concentrations was uncovered by receptor-binding assays. The results highlight the need of precautionary actions on the assessment of chemical mixtures even in cases where individual toxicants are present at seemingly harmless concentrations.

KEYWORDS:

bioassays; biomarkers; ecotoxicology; effects; mixtures

PMID:
24958932
PMCID:
PMC4166171
DOI:
10.1093/toxsci/kfu118
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center