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Addict Behav. 2015 May;44:102-7. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.11.004. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

The Metacognitions about Smoking Questionnaire: development and psychometric properties.

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Department of Psychology, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, UK. Electronic address:
Studi Cognitivi, Modena, Italy; Department of Psychology, School of Applied Sciences, London South Bank University, London, UK.
Division of Clinical Psychology, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Manchester Mental Health and Social Care NHS Trust, UK; Dept. of Psychology NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
Department of Psychology, School of Applied Sciences, London South Bank University, London, UK.



Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role in smoking. The goal of the current set of studies was to develop the first self-report instrument of metacognitions about smoking.


We conducted three studies with samples of smokers (n = 222, n = 143, n = 25) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Smoking Questionnaire and examined its capacity to predict smoking behaviour.


Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-factor solution: positive metacognitions about cognitive regulation, positive metacognitions about emotional regulation, negative metacognitions about uncontrollability, and negative metacognitions about cognitive interference. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity, and temporal stability were acceptable. The metacognition factors correlated positively with daily cigarette use and levels of nicotine dependence, and contributed to the prediction of these outcomes over and above smoking outcome expectancies.


The Metacognitions about Smoking Questionnaire was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. The metacognition factors explained incremental variance in smoking behaviour above smoking outcome expectancies.


Metacognition; Metacognitions about smoking; Nicotine use; Psychometric measure; Smoking; Smoking outcome expectancies

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