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Nutrients. 2017 Nov 13;9(11). pii: E1239. doi: 10.3390/nu9111239.

Maternal Iodine Intake and Offspring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Large Prospective Cohort Study.

Author information

1
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. mariannehope.abel@fhi.no.
2
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, 0167 Oslo, Norway. mariannehope.abel@fhi.no.
3
Department of Research and Development, TINE SA, 0902 Oslo, Norway. mariannehope.abel@fhi.no.
4
Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. eivind.ystrom@fhi.no.
5
Section of Health, Developmental and Personality Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway. eivind.ystrom@fhi.no.
6
Pharmaco Epidemiology and Drug Safety Research Group, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway. eivind.ystrom@fhi.no.
7
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. ida.henriette.caspersen@fhi.no.
8
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. hellemargrete.meltzer@fhi.no.
9
Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. heidi.aase@fhi.no.
10
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, 0167 Oslo, Norway. liv.elin.torheim@hioa.no.
11
Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. ragnabugge.askeland@fhi.no.
12
Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. ted.reichborn-kjennerud@fhi.no.
13
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway. ted.reichborn-kjennerud@fhi.no.
14
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway. annelise.brantsaeter@fhi.no.

Abstract

Current knowledge about the relationship between mild to moderately inadequate maternal iodine intake and/or supplemental iodine on child neurodevelopment is sparse. Using information from 77,164 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, this study explored associations between maternal iodine intake and child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry and maternally-reported child ADHD symptoms at eight years of age. Pregnant women reported food and supplement intakes by questionnaire in gestational week 22. In total, 1725 children (2.2%) were diagnosed with ADHD. In non-users of supplemental iodine (53,360 mothers), we found no association between iodine intake from food and risk of child ADHD diagnosis (p = 0.89), while low iodine from food (<200 µg/day) was associated with higher child ADHD symptom scores (adjusted difference in score up to 0.08 standard deviation (SD), p < 0.001, n = 19,086). In the total sample, we found no evidence of beneficial effects of maternal use of iodine-containing supplements (n = 23,804) on child ADHD diagnosis or symptom score. Initiation of iodine supplement use in gestational weeks 0-12 was associated with an increased risk of child ADHD (both measures). In conclusion, insufficient maternal iodine intake was associated with increased child ADHD symptom scores at eight years of age, but not with ADHD diagnosis. No reduction of risk was associated with maternal iodine supplement use.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; MoBa; Norwegian Patient Registry; Norwegian mother and child cohort study; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; dietary supplements; iodine; neurodevelopment; pregnancy

PMID:
29137191
PMCID:
PMC5707711
DOI:
10.3390/nu9111239
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

The first author of this paper is employed by a Norwegian dairy company (TINE SA), and she participates in this project as an industrial PhD-student financed partly by the dairy company and partly by The Research Council of Norway. This project is designed, owned and administered by The Norwegian Institute of Public Health and analysis of the data follow from protocol. All results of analysis in the project are to be published regardless of the results. The dairy company supports the study to raise awareness on the importance of iodine and to gain more knowledge about the potential health effects of milk in the Norwegian diet. Apart from the PhD-student, no one from the dairy company has been involved in the study, and in itself, the company had no direct influence on the analysis and interpretation of the results. The other authors had no conflicts of interest.

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