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Am J Perinatol. 2019 Feb 19. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1679916. [Epub ahead of print]

Maternal and Infant Adverse Outcomes Associated with Mild and Severe Preeclampsia during the First Year after Delivery in the United States.

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Precision Health Economics, Oakland, California.
Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
PAREXEL International, Durham, North Carolina.
Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.



 The burden of preeclampsia severity on the health of mothers and infants during the first year after delivery is unclear given the lack of population-based longitudinal studies in the United States.


 We assessed maternal and infant adverse outcomes during the first year after delivery using population-based hospital discharge information merged with vital statistics and birth certificates of 2,021,013 linked maternal-infant births in California. We calculated sampling weights using the National Center for Health Statistics data to adjust for observed differences in maternal characteristics between California and the rest of the United States. Separately, we estimated the association between preeclampsia and gestational age and examined collider bias in models of preeclampsia and maternal and infant adverse outcomes.


 Compared with women without preeclampsia, women with mild and severe preeclampsia delivered 0.66 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 0.68) and 2.74 weeks (95% CI: 2.72, 2.77) earlier, respectively. Mild preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of having any maternal adverse outcome (relative risk [RR] = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.93, 1.97), as was severe preeclampsia (RR = 2.80; 95% CI: 2.78, 2.82). The risk of an infant adverse outcome was increased for severe preeclampsia (RR = 2.15; 95% CI: 2.14, 2.17) but only marginally for mild preeclampsia (RR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98, 1). Collider bias produced an inverse association for mild preeclampsia and attenuated the association for severe preeclampsia in models for any infant adverse outcome.


 Using multiple datasets, we estimated that severe preeclampsia is associated with a higher risk of maternal and infant adverse outcomes compared with mild preeclampsia, including an earlier preterm delivery.


Conflict of interest statement

D. I. and D. P. are employees, and T. G. N. T. and W. S. are former employees of Precision Health Economics, which provides consulting and other research services to pharmaceutical, device, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations. The remaining authors report no conflict of interest.

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