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Mil Med. 2017 Sep;182(S2):34-52. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-17-00077.

Management of Acute Diarrheal Illness During Deployment: A Deployment Health Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

Author information

1
Enteric Disease Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910.
2
Chief, Tropical Medicine-Infectious Diseases, Bureau of Medical Services, U.S. Department of State, 2401 E Street NW L209, Washington, DC 20037.
3
Deputy Medical Corps, Chief, Medical Corps Specific Branch Proponent Officer, Infectious Disease Consultant to the Army Surgeon General, Brooke Army Medical Center, 3551 Roger Brooke Drive, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234.
4
Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics Department, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.
5
Military Enteric Disease Group, Academic Department of Military Medicine, Birmingham Research Park, Vincent Drive, Birmingham B15 2SQ, United Kingdom.
6
Department of Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics, The F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.
7
Infectious Disease Service, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Landstuhl, Germany, CMR 402, APO, AE, 19180. (Current Affiliation: Division of Global HIV and TB, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA).
8
Operational Medicine, Defense Institute for Medical Operations, 1320 Truemper Street, Building 9122, JBSA-Lackland, TX 78236.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Acute diarrheal illness during deployment causes significant morbidity and loss of duty days. Effective and timely treatment is needed to reduce individual, unit, and health system performance impacts.

METHODS:

This critical appraisal of the literature, as part of the development of expert consensus guidelines, asked several key questions related to self-care and healthcare-seeking behavior, antibiotics for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea, what antibiotics/regimens should be considered for treatment of acute watery diarrhea and febrile diarrhea and/or dysentery, and when and what laboratory diagnostics should be used to support management of deployment-related travelers' diarrhea. Studies of acute diarrhea management in military and other travelers were assessed for relevance and quality. On the basis of this critical appraisal, guideline recommendations were developed and graded by the Expert Panel using good standards in clinical guideline development methodology.

RESULTS:

New definitions for defining the severity of diarrhea during deployment were established. A total of 13 graded recommendations on the topics of prophylaxis, therapy and diagnosis, and follow-up were developed. In addition, four non-graded consensus-based statements were adopted.

CONCLUSIONS:

Successful management of acute diarrheal illness during deployment requires action at the provider, population, and commander levels. Strong evidence supports that single-dose antimicrobial therapy is effective in most cases of moderate to severe acute diarrheal illness during deployment. Further studies are needed to address gaps in available knowledge regarding optimal therapies for treatment, prevention, and laboratory testing of acute diarrheal illness.

PMID:
28885922
PMCID:
PMC5657341
DOI:
10.7205/MILMED-D-17-00077
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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