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Curr Urol Rep. 2014 Mar;15(3):389. doi: 10.1007/s11934-013-0389-7.

Lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI in prostate cancer: value and therapeutic potential.

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Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands,


Nodal staging in prostate cancer is suboptimal both with respect to current imaging modalities and pelvic lymph node dissection, and thus other techniques are being explored. Lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI, also called magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL), is a technique that has shown high sensitivity (65-92 %) and excellent specificity (93-98 %) in detecting prostate cancer lymph node metastases. This technique aids in the detection of metastases in non-enlarged small nodes. MRL has been useful in determining the location and pathways of spread in nodal chains. Knowledge of the location of lymph node involvement is important for decisions regarding appropriate therapeutic options, such as image-guided therapy.. A geographic miss in radiotherapy can be avoided with the use of MRL-guided focal therapy. This paper provides an overview of current literature, lessons learned, and new therapeutic options with nanoparticle-enhanced MRI.

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