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Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 May;27(5):637-643. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1077-9. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Longitudinal outcomes of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).

Author information

1
Section On Behavioral Pediatrics, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
2
Section On Behavioral Pediatrics, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. rebecca.hommer@nih.gov.
3
Pediatric Neuropsychiatry and Immunology Program at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
4
Child Study Center at Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

Little is known about the natural history of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). This study prospectively followed 33 children with PANDAS for up to 4.8 years (mean 3.3 ± 0.7 years) after enrollment in a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (N = 35). Fourteen of eighteen children randomized to placebo received open label IVIG 6 weeks after the blinded infusion, so follow-up results reported below largely reflect outcomes in a population of children who received at least one dose of IVIG. Telephone interviews with the parents of participants found that at the time of phone follow-up, 29 (88%) were not experiencing clinically significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms. During the interim period (6-57 months after entering the clinical trial), 24 (72%) had experienced at least one exacerbation of PANDAS symptoms, with a median of one exacerbation per child (range 1-12; interquartile range 0-3). A variety of treatment modalities, including antibiotics, IVIG, psychiatric medications, cognitive behavioral therapy, and others, were used to treat these exacerbations, and were often used in combination. The outcomes of this cohort are better than those previously reported for childhood-onset OCD, which may support conceptualization of PANDAS as a subacute illness similar to Sydenham chorea. However, some children developed a chronic course of illness, highlighting the need for research that identifies specific symptoms or biomarkers that can be used to predict the longitudinal course of symptoms in PANDAS.

KEYWORDS:

Longitudinal study; PANDAS; Parent interview; Pediatric OCD

PMID:
29119300
DOI:
10.1007/s00787-017-1077-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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