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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2019 Jan 1;34(1):38-39. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy199.

Liquorice, Liddle, Bartter or Gitelman-how to differentiate?

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1
UCL Centre for Nephrology, Royal Free Hospital, University College, London, UK.

Abstract

Hypokalaemia with alkalosis can suggest excess aldosterone. Aldosterone stimulates the collecting duct mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to upregulate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and stimulate electrogenic sodium reabsorption, with secretion of potassium and protons. Gitelman, Bartter and Liddle syndrome, and liquorice ingestion all cause hypokalaemic alkalosis. This mini-review outlines the pathophysiology of these conditions as well as how to differentiate them.

PMID:
29982819
DOI:
10.1093/ndt/gfy199

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