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Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2016 Aug;10:45-58. Epub 2016 May 19.

Lessons to be learned: how a comprehensive neurobiological framework of atypical reading development can inform educational practice.

Author information

1
Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, MA 02115, United States; Center for Reading and Language Research, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, United States.
2
Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, MA 02115, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States.
3
Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, MA 02115, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States.

Abstract

Dyslexia is a heritable reading disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5-17%. A multiple deficit model has been proposed that illustrates dyslexia as an outcome of multiple risks and protective factors interacting at the genetic, neural, cognitive, and environmental levels. Here we review the evidence on each of these levels and discuss possible underlying mechanisms and their reciprocal interactions along a developmental timeline. Current and potential implications of neuroscientific findings for contemporary challenges in the field of dyslexia, as well as for reading development and education in general, are then discussed.

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