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See 1 citation in Kidney Int 2013:

Kidney Int. 2013 May;83(5):792-803. doi: 10.1038/ki.2012.407. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

Bacterial infection-related glomerulonephritis in adults.

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Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Division of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.


In the past, most cases of bacterial infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) occurred in children following streptococcal upper respiratory tract or skin infections and were called postinfectious GN. Over the past 3 decades, there has been an important shift in epidemiology, bacteriology, and outcome of IRGN. A significant percentage of cases now target adults, particularly the elderly or immunocompromised. Because adult infections are often ongoing at the time of diagnosis, the term IRGN appears more appropriate. The sites of infection in adult IRGN are more heterogeneous than in children, and include the upper respiratory tract, skin, lung, heart, urinary tract, teeth/oral mucosa, and bone. In adults, the disease is more likely to be secondary to non-streptococcal infections, particularly staphylococcal infection. In contrast to the favorable course in children, a significant proportion of adults with IRGN, especially the elderly and diabetics, do not recover renal function. Whereas the pathogenesis of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis has been studied extensively, leading to the identification of two candidate nephritogenic streptococcal antigens, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrogenic exotoxin B, few investigations have focused on IRGN caused by other bacteria. This review will address the current status of sporadic bacterial IRGN in adults.

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