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See 1 citation in J Ren Nutr 2016:

J Ren Nutr. 2016 May;26(3):168-76. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2015.11.002. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

The Efficacy and Safety of Megestrol Acetate in Protein-Energy Wasting due to Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review.

Author information

1
College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Pharmacy Program, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Manitoba Renal Program, Manitoba, Canada. Electronic address: Lwazny@hsc.mb.ca.
2
Manitoba Renal Program, Manitoba, Canada.
3
Pharmacy Program, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Manitoba Renal Program, Manitoba, Canada.
4
University of Manitoba, Health Sciences Libraries, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
5
Departments of Medicine and Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Manitoba Renal Program, Manitoba, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the efficacy and safety of oral megestrol acetate (MA) in the management of protein-energy wasting in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

DESIGN:

A systematic review of English published literature from 1970 until April 1, 2014.

SUBJECTS:

All adult patients with CKD including both dialysis and non-dialysis-dependent.

INTERVENTION:

Oral MA.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Efficacy outcomes included changes in body weight, serum albumin, and appetite. Safety outcomes examined included adverse events (AEs) and deaths.

RESULTS:

A total of 9 studies met the inclusion criteria. No data on MA in non-dialysis CKD patients were available. Statistically significant increases in body weight (range 1.5-5 kg) were reported in 6 trials. Statistically significant increases in albumin (range of 0.22 g/dL-0.52 g/dL) were observed in 5 trials. Improved appetite was observed in 7 trials. All trials were limited by small sample sizes (range 9-32 subjects), short duration (range 8-24 weeks), a high degree of bias, and absence of clinical outcomes such as quality of life or hospitalizations. Forty-seven AEs were reported and included overhydration/excessive fluid gain, diarrhea, hyperglycemia, excessive weight gain, suppressed cortisol levels, thrombophlebitis, nausea/vomiting, confusion/hallucinations, vaginal bleeding, headache/dizziness, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. There were 26 discontinuations due to death.

CONCLUSION:

The current evidence for treatment with MA in patients receiving dialysis is sparse with few high-quality trials. The safety of using MA beyond 24 weeks is unknown, and use of MA is associated with significant AEs. At this time, oral MA should be used with significant caution, and only when other treatment options are unavailable.

PMID:
26776251
DOI:
10.1053/j.jrn.2015.11.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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