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J Neuroinflammation. 2017 Dec 28;14(1):261. doi: 10.1186/s12974-017-1042-z.

Inflammatory dysregulation of monocytes in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Author information

1
Department of Basic Clinical Practice, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
2
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
3
Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
4
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.
5
Immunology Service, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
6
Department of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
7
Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
8
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. LLAZARO@clinic.cat.
9
Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. LLAZARO@clinic.cat.
10
Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. LLAZARO@clinic.cat.
11
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain. LLAZARO@clinic.cat.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although the exact etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown, there is growing evidence of a role for immune dysregulation in the pathophysiology of the disease, especially in the innate immune system including the microglia. To test this hypothesis, we studied inflammatory markers in monocytes from pediatric patients with OCD and from healthy controls.

METHODS:

We determined the percentages of total monocytes, CD16+ monocytes, and classical (CD14highCD16-), intermediate (CD14highCD16low), and non-classical (CD14lowCD16high) monocyte subsets in 102 patients with early-onset OCD and in 47 healthy controls. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokine production (GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) was measured by multiplex Luminex analysis in isolated monocyte cultures, in basal conditions, after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate immune response or after exposure to LPS and the immunosuppressant dexamethasone.

RESULTS:

OCD patients had significantly higher percentages of total monocytes and CD16+ monocytes than healthy controls, mainly due to an increase in the intermediate subset but also in the non-classical monocytes. Monocytes from OCD patients released higher amounts of GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α than healthy controls after exposure to LPS. However, there were no significant differences in basal cytokine production or the sensitivity of monocytes to dexamethasone treatment between both groups. Based on monocyte subset distribution and cytokine production after LPS stimulation, patients receiving psychoactive medications seem to have an intermediate inflammatory profile, that is, lower than non-medicated OCD individuals and higher than healthy controls.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results strongly support the involvement of an enhanced proinflammatory innate immune response in the etiopathogenesis of early-onset OCD.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Cytokines; Immune system; Inflammation; Microglia; Monocytes; Obsessive-compulsive disorder

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