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PLoS One. 2019 Nov 18;14(11):e0223710. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223710. eCollection 2019.

Infective endocarditis and diabetes mellitus: Results from a single-center study from 1994 to 2017.

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Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.
Heart Department, University Hospital "San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona", Salerno, Italy.



To evaluate the prognostic impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with Infective Endocarditis (IE).


375 patients with diagnosis of IE referred to our Hospital between 1994-2017 were retrospectively included; diabetes was reported in 129 (34.4%). Diabetic patients were older than non-diabetic (66±1 vs. 57±2 years, p<0.001) and showed a higher prevalence of comorbidities such as hypertension (75 vs. 54%, p<0.001), coronary artery disease (30 vs. 12%, p<0.001) and history of heart failure (HF; 24 vs. 13%, p = 0.021). Echocardiography showed a higher incidence of paravalvular complications (82 vs. 64%, p<0.001) and a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; 52±11 vs. 55±10%, p = 0.001) in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients. In-hospital mortality was higher in diabetic patients (83 vs. 74%; p = 0.030). At logistic regression, history of HF (OR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.87-5.29, p<0.001) resulted an independent predictor of in-hospital death. At long-term follow-up [median 24(7-84) months], the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly lower survival free from all-cause death in the group with diabetes (Log-rank<0.001). At the propensity score adjusted Cox multivariable analysis, DM (HR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.18-2.6, p = 0.005), age (HR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.02-1.05, p<0.001), intravenous drug users (HR = 5.42, 95%CI: 2.55-11.51, p<0.001) and low LVEF (HR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96-0.99, p = 0.013) were independently associated to a higher mortality.


In patients with IE, DM is associated to a higher prevalence of anatomic complications and a more impaired LVEF. Diabetic patients show a significantly lower survival both in hospital and during follow-up compared to the non-diabetic ones.

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