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Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2015 Jul-Aug;62(4):441-50. doi: 10.1002/bab.1285. Epub 2015 Jan 2.

In vitro and in vivo evaluations of three-dimensional hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin nanocomposite scaffolds.

Author information

1
Biotechnology Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2
Bioengineering Research Group, Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Tehran, Iran.
3
Cellular & Molecular Research Center, Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
4
Immuunogenetic Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
5
Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6
Department of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
7
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
8
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

In this study, three-dimensional hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin (HAp/SF) nanocomposite scaffolds were successfully prepared through layer solvent casting combined with the freeze-drying technique for tissue engineering applications. Various SF aqueous concentrations, ranging from 2.5% to 10%, were used to control the physicochemical properties of the prepared scaffolds. Biologic responses of the rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) to the HAp/SF scaffolds were examined by culturing the cells within them. In addition, biodegradation and biocompatibility of the scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Among the prepared scaffolds, HAp/SF-2.5% was the most brittle sample and showed porous structure with lowest mechanical properties. The average pore diameters were 350 ± 67 and 112 ± 89 µm and decreased with the increase in the SF concentration from 5% to 10%, respectively. The pores formed in the scaffolds, made up of the 5% SF, were more uniform and regular than those of the scaffolds made up of 5% and 10% SF. The HAp/SF scaffolds did not change the rBMSCs viability and were not cytotoxic compared with the control sample. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the cells migrated into the pores and well attached to the scaffolds and their cytoplasm was extended in all directions, indicating a promising cell adhesion, high biocompatibility, and no cytotoxicity of the HAp/SF-5% nanocomposite scaffolds. Subcutaneous implantation of the HAp/SF-5% scaffolds in rat models suggested an excellent biocompatibility. All data obtained from this study suggest the potential use of the HAp/SF-5% for hard tissue engineering.

KEYWORDS:

hydroxyapatite; scaffold; silk fibroin; tissue engineering

PMID:
25196187
DOI:
10.1002/bab.1285
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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