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Neuroimage. 2010 Feb 1;49(3):2401-15. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.10.011. Epub 2009 Oct 13.

Improving human brain mapping via joint inversion of brain electrodynamics and the BOLD signal.

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Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.


We present several methods to improve the resolution of human brain mapping by combining information obtained from surface electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the same participants performing the same task in separate imaging sessions. As an initial step in our methods we used independent component analysis (ICA) to obtain task-related sources for both EEG and fMRI. We then used that information in an integrated cost function that attempts to match both data sources and trades goodness of fit in one regime for another. We compared the performance and drawbacks of each method in localizing sources for a dual visual evoked response experiment, and we contrasted the results of adding fMRI information to simple EEG-only inversion methods. We found that adding fMRI information in a variety of ways gives superior results to classical minimum norm source estimation. Our findings lead us to favor a method which attempts to match EEG scalp dynamics along with voxel power obtained from ICA-processed blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) data; this method of joint inversion enables us to treat the two data sources as symmetrically as possible.

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