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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Nov;17(11):1411-3. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.13.0151.

Impact of HIV on clinical presentation and outcomes of tuberculosis treatment at primary care level.

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Department of Epidemiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.


Little is known on how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in primary care. We compared TB type, HIV care and case fatality rates between 5685 adults and 830 children with TB treated at primary care clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Children represented a substantial burden (13%) of TB, and presented predominantly with difficult to diagnose smear-negative TB and extra-pulmonary TB. The HIV co-infection rate was lower in children than in adults, and fewer children than adults received antiretroviral therapy during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Case fatality was four times higher in HIV-infected than non-infected children. Child-friendly point-of-care TB diagnostics and decentralized pediatric TB-HIV care should receive greater attention.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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