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Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Nov 15;22(22):4528-44. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt300. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

IGF-1 receptor antagonism inhibits autophagy.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK.

Abstract

Inhibition of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway increases lifespan and protects against neurodegeneration in model organisms, and has been considered as a potential therapeutic target. This pathway is upstream of mTORC1, a negative regulator of autophagy. Thus, we expected autophagy to be activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inhibition, which could account for many of its beneficial effects. Paradoxically, we found that IGF-1 inhibition attenuates autophagosome formation. The reduced amount of autophagosomes present in IGF-1R depleted cells can be, at least in part, explained by a reduced formation of autophagosomal precursors at the plasma membrane. In particular, IGF-1R depletion inhibits mTORC2, which, in turn, reduces the activity of protein kinase C (PKCα/β). This perturbs the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and decreases the rate of clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which impacts autophagosome precursor formation. Finally, with important implications for human diseases, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of the IGF-1R signalling cascade reduces autophagy also in zebrafish and mice models. The novel link we describe here has important consequences for the interpretation of genetic experiments in mammalian systems and for evaluating the potential of targeting the IGF-1R receptor or modulating its signalling through the downstream pathway for therapeutic purposes under clinically relevant conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, where autophagy stimulation is considered beneficial.

PMID:
23804751
PMCID:
PMC3889807
DOI:
10.1093/hmg/ddt300
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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