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Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;157(3):259-65. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2012.12.005. Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Goldfish can recover after short-term exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate: use of blood parameters as vital biomarkers.

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Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Precarpathian National University named after Vassyl Stefanyk, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk, 76025, Ukraine.


This study investigated the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a widely used herbicide, on the metabolism of goldfish, Carassius auratus, using only vital (non-lethal) approaches. After 96 h exposure to 1, 10 or 100 mg/L of 2,4-D selected hematological (total hemoglobin and hematocrit) and biochemical (glucose content, aspartate transaminase and acetylcholinesterase activities) parameters were unchanged in blood of exposed fish. At 100 mg/L of 2,4-D lymphocyte numbers decreased by 8%, whereas promyelocyte and metamyelocyte numbers increased by 7- and 2-fold, respectively. Exposure to 100 mg/L of 2,4-D also elevated carbonyl protein levels (by 2-fold), triglyceride content (by 43%) and alanine transaminase activity (by 46%) in goldfish plasma. All of these hematological and biochemical parameters reverted to control values after a 96 h recovery period. These data indicate that 2,4-D has toxicological effects on goldfish that can be monitored with multiple diagnostic tests using non-lethal blood testing.

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