Send to

Choose Destination

See 1 citation found by title matching your search:

Birth Defects Res. 2019 Nov 1;111(18):1329-1342. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1606. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Genome-wide association studies of structural birth defects: A review and commentary.

Author information

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, UTHealth School of Public Health, Houston, Texas.
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.



While there is strong evidence that genetic risk factors play an important role in the etiologies of structural birth defects, compared to other diseases, there have been relatively few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of these conditions. We reviewed the current landscape of GWAS conducted for birth defects, noting novel insights, and future directions.


This article reviews the literature with regard to GWAS of structural birth defects. Key defects included in this review include oral clefts, congenital heart defects (CHDs), biliary atresia, pyloric stenosis, hypospadias, craniosynostosis, and clubfoot. Additionally, other issues related to GWAS are considered, including the assessment of polygenic risk scores and issues related to genetic ancestry, as well as utilizing genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism array data to evaluate gene-environment interactions and Mendelian randomization.


For some birth defects, including oral clefts and CHDs, several novel susceptibility loci have been identified and replicated through GWAS, including 8q24 for oral clefts, DGKK for hypospadias, and 4p16 for CHDs. Relatively common birth defects for which there are currently no published GWAS include neural tube defects, anotia/microtia, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, gastroschisis, and omphalocele.


Overall, GWAS have been successful in identifying several novel susceptibility genes and genomic regions for structural birth defects. These findings have provided new insights into the etiologies of these phenotypes. However, GWAS have been underutilized for understanding the genetic etiologies of several birth defects.


GWAS; birth defects; epidemiology; genetics


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center