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J Anxiety Disord. 2015 Jan;29:101-8. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.11.007. Epub 2014 Dec 5.

Gender differences in the expression of PTSD symptoms among active duty military personnel.

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RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Drive, Durham, NC 27719, United States. Electronic address:
RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Drive, Durham, NC 27719, United States.
Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, and New York State Psychiatric Institute, NY, United States.


This study examined gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and symptom factors in the total U.S. active duty force. Data were drawn from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel including 17,939 men and 6751 women from all services. The results indicated that women expressed more distress than men across almost all the symptoms on the PTSD Checklist except for hypervigilance. Women also scored significantly higher on all four factors examined: Re-experiencing, Avoidance, Emotionally Numb, Hyperarousal. More women than men were distressed by combat experiences that involved some type of violence, such as being wounded, witnessing or engaging in acts of cruelty, engaging in hand-to-hand combat, and, to a lesser extent, handling dead bodies. Men who had been sexually abused had a greater number of symptoms and were consistently more distressed than women on individual symptoms and symptom factors.


Combat; Gender differences; Military; PTSD; Sexual abuse

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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