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Scand J Gastroenterol. 2019 Jan;54(1):95-100. doi: 10.1080/00365521.2018.1561937. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Galectin 4 is a biomarker for early recurrence and death after surgical resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

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a Department of Gastroenterology , The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou , China.
b Department of Surgery , Clinical Sciences Lund Lund University and Skåne University Hospital , Lund , Sweden.
c Department of Pathology , Skåne University Hospital , Lund , Sweden.



Galectins are a group of carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in neoplastic development and progression. In a previous mass spectrometry-based study, we identified galectin 4 as a down-regulated protein in short-term survivors of pancreatic cancer. This study was performed to validate the prognostic value of galectin 4 in a larger cohort of pancreatic cancer patients undergoing surgical resection.


Galectin 4 expression was evaluated by tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry in 140 patients with surgically resected pancreatic cancer. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to explore the association between galectin 4 and survival.


Galectin 4 staining expression was positive in 111 cases (79.3%). The expression of galectin 4 was significantly associated with tumor size (p = .008) and differentiation (p = .001). Galectin 4 expression was significantly correlated with disease recurrence within 1 year of surgery (adjusted HR 0.485, p = .027). There was also a significant association between galectin 4 and overall survival at 1 year (adjusted HR 0.482, p = .047) and at 3 years (adjusted HR 0.550, p = .025).


Galectin 4 expression is a novel biomarker for early recurrence and mortality after surgical resection for pancreatic cancer.


LGALS4; Pancreatic cancer; early recurrence; galectin 4; survival

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