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J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2015 Aug;45(8):576-84. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2015.5823. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Gait Retraining for Injured and Healthy Runners Using Augmented Feedback: A Systematic Literature Review.

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Human Performance Innovation Lab, School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.



Systematic literature review.


This review sought to determine the efficacy of real-time visual and/or auditory feedback for modifying kinematics and kinetics during running gait.


Real-time visual and auditory feedback has gained popularity in the clinical and research settings. Rehabilitation time and injury prevention may be improved when clinicians are able to modify running mechanics in a patient population.


A thorough search of PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science from 1989 to January 2015 was performed. The search sought articles that examined real-time visual or auditory feedback for the purposes of modifying kinematics or kinetics in injured or healthy runners. Study design and methodological quality were rated using a 20-point scale.


Ten studies were identified for inclusion in the review, 2 of high and 8 of moderate methodological quality. There was a consensus in the literature that the use of real-time feedback is effective in reducing variables related to ground reaction forces, as well as in positively modifying previously identified risky lower extremity kinematic movement patterns in healthy runners and those with patellofemoral pain and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. No one method of feedback was identified as being superior. Mirror and 2-dimensional video feedback were identified as potential methods for running-gait modification in a clinical setting.


In conjunction with traditional therapeutic interventions, real-time auditory and visual feedback should be considered for treating injured runners or addressing potentially injurious running mechanics in a healthy population.


auditory; biomechanics; injury; mirror; patellofemoral pain; visual

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