Send to

Choose Destination

See 1 citation found by title matching your search:

Environ Int. 2003 Sep;29(6):711-6.

Formation of PBDD/F from flame-retarded plastic materials under thermal stress.

Author information

Institute of Ecological Chemistry and Waste Analysis, Technical University of Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.


Thermal treatment of plastics flame retarded with brominated compounds often lead to the formation of PBDD/F, especially if polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used. By the presence of antimony(III) oxide, water and some other metals, the amounts of PBDD/F increase. Even during the production and recycling processes of plastics, PBDD/F can be found in considerable amounts. By the use of flame retardants, which are not direct precursors of PBDD/F, the amounts can significantly be decreased. An incomplete and uncontrolled incineration, occurring in fire accidents in private residences, can form high amounts of PBDD/F, which can endanger the environment and persons in contact with fire residues. Complete and controlled incineration of bromine-containing compounds as usually conducted in municipal waste incinerators, however, show no raised risk. An overview about the formation of PBDD/F primarily during combustion and also during production and recycling processes of flame-retarded plastic materials is given in this paper.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center