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Nature. 2014 May 8;509(7499):183-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13135. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

FXR is a molecular target for the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45237, USA.
2
Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine and Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, S-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden.
3
1] Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45237, USA [2] Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.
5
Divison of Biomedical Informatics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.
6
1] Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine and Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, S-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden [2] Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section for Metabolic Receptology and Enteroendocrinology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark.

Abstract

Bariatric surgical procedures, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are at present the most effective therapy for the treatment of obesity, and are associated with considerable improvements in co-morbidities, including type-2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to these benefits remain largely undetermined, despite offering the potential to reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention. Substantial changes in circulating total bile acids are known to occur after VSG. Moreover, bile acids are known to regulate metabolism by binding to the nuclear receptor FXR (farsenoid-X receptor, also known as NR1H4). We therefore examined the results of VSG surgery applied to mice with diet-induced obesity and targeted genetic disruption of FXR. Here we demonstrate that the therapeutic value of VSG does not result from mechanical restriction imposed by a smaller stomach. Rather, VSG is associated with increased circulating bile acids, and associated changes to gut microbial communities. Moreover, in the absence of FXR, the ability of VSG to reduce body weight and improve glucose tolerance is substantially reduced. These results point to bile acids and FXR signalling as an important molecular underpinning for the beneficial effects of this weight-loss surgery.

PMID:
24670636
PMCID:
PMC4016120
DOI:
10.1038/nature13135
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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