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PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024342. Epub 2011 Sep 6.

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy reverses ischemia-related left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling: molecular-cellular and functional assessment.

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Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.


An optimal treatment for patients with diffuse obstructive arterial disease unsuitable for catheter-based or surgical intervention is still pending. This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy may be a therapeutic alternative under such clinical situation. Myocardial ischemia was induced in male mini-pigs through applying an ameroid constrictor over mid-left anterior descending artery (LAD). Twelve mini-pigs were equally randomized into group 1 (Constrictor over LAD only) and group 2 (Constrictor over LAD plus ECSW [800 impulses at 0.09 mJ/mm(2)] once 3 months after the procedure). Results showed that the parameters measured by echocardiography did not differ between two groups on days 0 and 90. However, echocardiography and left ventricular (LV) angiography showed higher LV ejection fraction and lower LV end-systolic dimension and volume in group 2 on day 180 (p<0.035). Besides, mRNA and protein expressions of CXCR4 and SDF-1α were increased in group 2 (p<0.04). Immunofluorescence staining also showed higher number of vWF-, CD31-, SDF-1α-, and CXCR4-positive cells in group 2 (all p<0.04). Moreover, immunohistochemical staining showed notably higher vessel density but lower mean fibrosis area, number of CD40-positive cells and apoptotic nuclei in group 2 (all p<0.045). Mitochondrial protein expression of oxidative stress was lower, whereas cytochrome-C was higher in group 2 (all p<0.03). Furthermore, mRNA expressions of MMP-9, Bax and caspase-3 were lower, whereas Bcl-2, eNOS, VEGF and PGC-1α were higher in group 2 (all p<0.01). In conclusion, ECSW therapy effectively reversed ischemia-elicited LV dysfunction and remodeling through enhancing angiogenesis and attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress.

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