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J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Nov;75(5):759-66. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3182a92514.

Evaluation of resuscitation fluids on endothelial glycocalyx, venular blood flow, and coagulation function after hemorrhagic shock in rats.

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From the Damage Control Resuscitation, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.



Endothelial glycocalyx (EG) plays an essential role in endothelium integrity and may be compromised by hemorrhagic shock. The effects of currently available resuscitation fluids such as Hextend (HEX) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR) on vascular function and coagulation are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) with HEX or LR in their ability to repair EG structure, promote volume expansion, increase blood flow, and prevent coagulopathy.


A total of 121 microvessels from cremaster muscle were studied in 32 anesthetized instrumented rats. After baseline systemic and microvascular measurements, 40% hemorrhage followed by resuscitation was performed, and measurements were repeated. Coagulation was evaluated using ROTEM to assay clot formation time, clotting time, firmness, strength, and lysis. Velocity and "platelet component" of strength were calculated. Fluorescein isothiocyanate or Texas Red bound to Dextrans was injected to estimate EG thickness in vivo.


Respiratory rate, blood pH, base excess, and lactate returned to near-baseline levels in all treatments. Hemodilution caused by LR and HEX decreased firmness, prolonged clotting time, and lowered platelet counts. EG thickness in HEX- and LR-treated rats was 50% lower, and plasma syndecan 1 was 50% higher than sham and FFP groups. Blood flow and shear rate were restored in the HEX group. Resuscitation with FFP improved coagulation and blood flow.


Our findings support the concept of cardiovascular and microvascular stabilization by infused FFP, in which the increase in microvascular perfusion associated with restored EG is essential for an optimal resuscitation strategy.

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