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See 1 citation in Cardiovasc Diabetol 2013 by Esposito K:

Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 May 30;12:81. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-81.

Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: evidence and uncertainty.

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Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy.


The panoply of treatment algorithms, periodically released to improve guidance, is one mean to face therapeutic uncertainty in pharmacological management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, especially after metformin failure. Failure of recent guidelines to give advice on the use of specific antidiabetic drugs in patients with co-morbidity may generate further uncertainty, given the frequent association of type 2 diabetes with common comorbidity, including, although not limited to obesity, cardiovascular disease, impaired renal function, and frailty. The Italian Association of Diabetologists (Associazione Medici Diabetologi, AMD) recognized the need to develop personalized treatment plans for people with type 2 diabetes, taking into account the patients' individual profile (phenotype), with the objective of the safest possible glycemic control. As not every subject with type 2 diabetes benefits from intensive glycemic control, flexible regimens of treatment with diabetes drugs (including insulin) are needed for reaching individualized glycemic goals. Whether personalized diabetology will improve the quality healthcare practice of diabetes management is unknown, but specific research has been launched.

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