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PLoS One. 2016 Jan 13;11(1):e0145469. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145469. eCollection 2016.

Epidemiological Trends of Traumatic Brain Injury Identified in the Emergency Department in a Publicly-Insured Population, 2002-2010.

Author information

1
Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital; Injury Prevention Research Office, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, Keenan Research Centre; University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
2
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To examine epidemiological trends of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) treated in the Emergency Department (ED), identify demographic groups at risk of TBI, and determine the factors associated with hospitalization following an ED visit for TBI.

METHODS:

A province-wide database was used to identify all ED visits for TBI in Ontario, Canada between April 2002 and March 2010. Trends were analyzed using linear regression, and predictors of hospital admission were evaluated using logistic regression.

RESULTS:

There were 986,194 ED visits for TBI over the eight-year study period, resulting in 49,290 hospitalizations and 1,072 deaths. The age- and sex-adjusted rate of TBI decreased by 3%, from 1,013.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 1,008.3-1,010.6) to 979.1 per 100,000 (95% CI 973.7-984.4; p = 0.11). We found trends towards increasing age, comorbidity level, length of stay, and ambulatory transport use. Children and young adults (ages 5-24) sustained peak rates of motor vehicle crash (MVC) and bicyclist-related TBI, but also experienced the greatest decline in these rates (p = 0.003 and p = 0.005). In contrast, peak rates of fall-related TBI occurred among the youngest (ages 0-4) and oldest (ages 85+) segments of the population, but rates remained stable over time (p = 0.52 and 0.54). The 5-24 age group also sustained the highest rates of sports-related TBI but rates remained stable (p = 0.80). On multivariate analysis, the odds of hospital admission decreased by 1% for each year over the study period (OR = 0.991, 95% CI = 0.987-0.995). Increasing age and comorbidity, male sex, and ambulatory transport were significant predictors of hospital admission.

CONCLUSIONS:

ED visits for TBI are involving older populations with increasingly complex comorbidities. While TBI rates are either stable or declining among vulnerable groups such as young drivers, youth athletes, and the elderly, these populations remain key targets for focused injury prevention and surveillance. Clinicians in the ED setting should be cognizant of factors associated with hospitalization following TBI.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

III.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional.

PMID:
26760779
PMCID:
PMC4720113
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0145469
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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