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Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018 May;33(5):695-702. doi: 10.1002/gps.4840. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Empirically derived dimensional syndromes of self-reported psychopathology: Cross-cultural comparisons of Portuguese and US elders.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.
CESPU, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, Gandra, Portugal.
UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
CINTESIS-Center for Health Technology and Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal.



As the world population ages, mental health professionals increasingly need empirically supported assessment instruments for older adult psychopathology. This study tested the degree to which syndromes derived from self-ratings of psychopathology by elders in the US would fit self-ratings by elders in Portugal.


The Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) was completed by 352 60- to 102-year-olds in Portuguese community and residential settings.


Confirmatory factor analyses tested the fit of the 7-syndrome OASR model to self-ratings by Portuguese elders. The primary fit index (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) showed good fit, while secondary fit indices (the Comparative Fit Index and the Tucker-Lewis Index) showed acceptable fit. Loadings of 95 of the 97 items on their expected syndromes were statistically significant (mean = .63), indicating that the items measured the syndromes well. Correlations between latent factors, ie, between the hypothesized syndrome constructs measured by the items, averaged .66. The correlations between syndromes reflect varying degrees of comorbidity between problems comprising particular pairs of syndromes.


The results support the syndrome structure of the OASR for Portuguese elders, offering Portuguese clinicians and researchers a useful instrument for assessing a broad spectrum of psychopathology. The results also offer a core of empirically supported taxonomic constructs of later life psychopathology as a basis for advancing clinical practice, training, and cross-cultural research.


assessment; cross-cultural; empirical syndromes; older adults; psychopathology

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