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J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2014 Oct;38(3):331-8. doi: 10.1007/s11239-013-1042-5.

Elevated plasma CL-K1 level is associated with a risk of developing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

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Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA,


Collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) is a recently identified collectin that is synthesized in most organs and circulates in blood. CL-K1 is an innate immune molecule that may play a significant role in host defense. As some collectins also play a role in coagulation, we hypothesized that an effect of CL-K1 may be apparent in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a gross derangement of the coagulation system that occurs in the setting of profound activation of the innate immune system. DIC is a grave medical condition with a high incidence of multiple organ failure and high mortality and yet there are no reliable biomarkers or risk factors. In our present study, we measured plasma CL-K1 concentration in a total of 659 specimens, including 549 DIC patients, 82 non-DIC patients and 27 healthy volunteers. The median plasma CL-K1 levels in these cohorts were 424, 238 and 245 ng/ml, respectively, with no significant difference in the latter two groups. The incidence of elevated plasma CL-K1 was significantly higher in the DIC patients compared to the non-DIC patients, resulting in an odds ratio of 1.929 (confidence interval 1.041-3.866). Infection, renal diseases, respiratory diseases, and cardiac diseases were more frequently observed in the DIC group than in the non-DIC group. In the DIC group, vascular diseases were associated with elevated plasma CL-K1 levels while age and acute illness had little effect on plasma CL-K1 levels. Independent of DIC, elevated plasma CL-K1 levels were associated with respiratory disease and coagulation disorders. These results suggest that specific diseases may affect CL-K1 synthesis in an organ dependent manner and that elevated plasma CL-K1 levels are associated with the presence of DIC. Further investigations in cohorts of patients are warranted. We propose that elevated plasma CL-K1 may be a new useful risk factor and possibly biomarker for the prediction of developing DIC.

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