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Acta Biomater. 2015 May;18:9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2014.12.024. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Effect of calcium phosphate coating and rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration in rabbit calvaria using poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.

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Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.
Department of Biomaterials & Biomimetics, New York University, New York, NY, USA.
United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA.
Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:


Various calcium phosphate based coatings have been evaluated for better bony integration of metallic implants and are currently being investigated to improve the surface bioactivity of polymeric scaffolds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of calcium phosphate coating and simultaneous delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on the in vivo bone regeneration capacity of biodegradable, porous poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) scaffolds. PPF scaffolds were coated with three different calcium phosphate formulations: magnesium-substituted β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCMP), carbonated hydroxyapatite (synthetic bone mineral, SBM) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). In vivo bone regeneration was evaluated by implantation of scaffolds in a critical-sized rabbit calvarial defect loaded with different doses of rhBMP-2. Our data demonstrated that scaffolds with each of the calcium phosphate coatings were capable of sustaining rhBMP-2 release and retained an open porous structure. After 6weeks of implantation, micro-computed tomography revealed that the rhBMP-2 dose had a significant effect on bone formation within the scaffolds and that the SBM-coated scaffolds regenerated significantly greater bone than BCP-coated scaffolds. Mechanical testing of the defects also indicated restoration of strength in the SBM and β-TCMP with rhBMP-2 delivery. Histology results demonstrated bone growth immediately adjacent to the scaffold surface, indicating good osteointegration and osteoconductivity for coated scaffolds. The results obtained in this study suggest that the coated scaffold platform demonstrated a synergistic effect between calcium phosphate coatings and rhBMP-2 delivery and may provide a promising platform for the functional restoration of large bone defects.


3-D printing; Bone regeneration; Calcium phosphate coating; Poly(propylene fumarate); Rabbit calvarial defect

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