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J Clin Med. 2019 Sep 11;8(9). pii: E1439. doi: 10.3390/jcm8091439.

Dry Eye Disease: Emerging Approaches to Disease Analysis and Therapy.

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Basir Eye Health Research Center, Tehran 1418643561, Iran.
Farabi Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 133661635, Iran.
Basir Eye Health Research Center, Tehran 1418643561, Iran.
Department of Ophthalmology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Ophthalmic Consultation Service, New York, NY 10029, USA.
New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10003, USA.
Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 1130033, Japan.
Department of Strategic Operating Room Management and Improvement, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 1130033, Japan.
Systems Biomedicine and Pharmacology Division, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden University, 2333CC Leiden, The Netherlands.
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200000, China.


Dry eye disease (DED) is among the most common ocular disorders affecting tens of millions of individuals worldwide; however, the condition remains incompletely understood and treated. Valuable insights have emerged from multidisciplinary approaches, including immunometabolic analyses, microbiome analyses, and bioengineering. Furthermore, we have seen new developments in clinical assessment approaches and treatment strategies in the recent past. Here, we review the emerging frontiers in the pathobiology and clinical management of DED.


DED treatment; clinical signs; dry eye disease; eye-on-a-chip; immunometabolism; microbiota; omics

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