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PLoS One. 2015 May 26;10(5):e0128001. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128001. eCollection 2015.

Differences in the serum nonesterified Fatty Acid profile of young women associated with a recent history of gestational diabetes and overweight/obesity.

Author information

1
Diabetes Research Group, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; Clinical Cooperation Group Type 2 Diabetes, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich, Germany.
2
Division of Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.
3
Institute for Clinical Radiology, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.
4
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) play pathophysiological roles in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we analyzed the fasting NEFA profiles of normoglycemic individuals at risk for T2D (women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (GDM)) in comparison to controls (women after a normoglycemic pregnancy). We also examined the associations of NEFA species with overweight/obesity, body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

Using LC-MS/MS, we analyzed 41 NEFA species in the fasting sera of 111 women (62 post-GDM, 49 controls). Clinical characterization included a five-point oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), biomarkers and anthropometrics, magnetic resonance imaging (n = 62) and a food frequency questionnaire. Nonparametric tests with Bonferroni correction, binary logistic regression analyses and rank correlations were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS:

Women after GDM had a lower molar percentage of total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 38.55% vs. 40.32%, p = 0.0002) than controls. At an explorative level of significance several NEFA species were associated with post-GDM status (with and without adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and HbA1c): The molar percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 18:0 and 18:4 were reduced, whereas those of 18:1, 18:2, 20:2, 24:4, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and total n-6 NEFA were increased. BMI and the amount of body fat correlated inversely with several SFA and MUFA and positively with various PUFA species over the whole study cohort (abs(ρ)≥0.3 for all). 14:0 was inversely and BMI-independently associated with abdominal visceral adiposity. We saw no correlations of NEFA species with insulin sensitivity and the total NEFA concentration was similar in the post-GDM and the control group.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, we found alterations in the fasting NEFA profile associated with a recent history of gestational diabetes, a risk marker for T2D. NEFA composition also varied with overweight/obesity and with body fat distribution, but not with insulin sensitivity.

PMID:
26011768
PMCID:
PMC4444334
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0128001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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