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Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Mar;113:179-186. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.01.049. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Biological, chemical and in silico fingerprints of Dianthus calocephalus Boiss.: A novel source for rutin.

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Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Campus/Konya, Turkey.
University of Mauritius, Faculty of Science, Department of Health Sciences, Réduit, Mauritius.
University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Department of Pharmacy, Chieti, Italy.
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Laboratory of Applied Biotechnologies, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Campus/Konya, Turkey. Electronic address:


Extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) from Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. prepared by different extraction techniques (maceration, Soxhlet, and ultrasonication) were studied for possible inhibitory action against key enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetyl cholinesterase, butyryl cholinesterase, and tyrosinase). Antioxidant potential was established using a battery of assays and phenolic compounds profiled by RP-HPLC. Binding pose of tyrosinase with rutin was studied by means of molecular docking. Methanol extracts showed the highest phenolic (39.35-40.25 mgGAE/g) content and rich in rutin (61.38-72.07 mg/g extract). Ethyl acetate extracts of D. calocephalus were potent inhibitors of acetyl (1.45-1.48 mgGALAE/g) and butyryl (2.44-2.74 mgGALAE/g) cholinesterases. Docking studies showed that rutin interacts with the side chains of the key amino acid residues and to the copper atom found at the active site of tyrosinase. Methanol extracts showed highest antioxidant capacity. D. calocephalus showed interesting biological properties that could be further studied to manage diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and hyperpigmentation.


Cholinesterases; Molecular docking and dynamics; Natural agents; Phenolics; Tyrosinase; α-amylase

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