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Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jul 1;628-629:1609-1616. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.107. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Developing and interpreting aqueous functional assays for comparative property-activity relationships of different nanoparticles.

Author information

1
Nanosystems Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment, Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Tempe, AZ 85287-3005, United States.
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0258, United States.
3
Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Environmental Health Sciences Center, Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-7301, United States.
4
The Polytechnic School, Fulton Schools of Engineering, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212, United States.
5
Nanosystems Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment, Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Tempe, AZ 85287-3005, United States. Electronic address: p.westerhoff@asu.edu.

Abstract

It is difficult to relate intrinsic nanomaterial properties to their functional behavior in the environment. Unlike frameworks for dissolved organic chemicals, there are few frameworks comparing multiple and inter-related properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to their fate, exposure, and hazard in environmental systems. We developed and evaluated reproducibility and inter-correlation of 12 physical, chemical, and biological functional assays in water for eight different engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and interpreted results using activity-profiling radar plots. The functional assays were highly reproducible when run in triplicate (average coefficient of variation [CV]=6.6%). Radar plots showed that each nanomaterial exhibited unique activity profiles. Reactivity assays showed dissolution or aggregation potential for some ENMs. Surprisingly, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) exhibited movement in a magnetic field. We found high inter-correlations between cloud point extraction (CPE) and distribution to sewage sludge (R2=0.99), dissolution at pH8 and pH4.9 (R2=0.98), and dissolution at pH8 and zebrafish mortality at 24hpf (R2=0.94). Additionally, most ENMs tend to distribute out of water and into other phases (i.e., soil surfaces, surfactant micelles, and sewage sludge). The activity-profiling radar plots provide a framework and estimations of likely ENM disposition in the environment.

KEYWORDS:

Exposure; Fate; Hazard; Nanoparticle; Water

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