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Recent Pat Biomark. 2015;5(2):93-100. doi: 10.2174/2210309005666150804195033.

Detection of Lysyl Oxidase-Like 2 (LOXL2), a Biomarker of Metastasis from Breast Cancers Using Human Blood Samples.

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Biomedical Engineering, King Monkut's Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.
Material Research Group, SRAM Asia, Taichung, 429, Taiwan.
College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.
Green Energy & Environmental Research Laboratory, Industrial Technology Research, Institute (ITRI), Hsing Chu, Taiwan.
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA 02912.
Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
Institute of Materials & Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, 320, Taiwan.
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsing Chu, 30013Taiwan.
Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
Department of Family Medicine, University Hospitals, Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve, University, Cleveland, OH 44016, USA.
City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.
Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan.


Metastasis accounts for 90% of the mortality associated with breast cancer. Upregulated expression of members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of secreted copper amine oxidases catalyzes the crosslinking of collagens and elastin in the extracellular matrix. LOXs are linked to the development and metastatic progression of breast cancers. Accordingly, aberrant expression of LOX-like 2 (LOXL2) is observed in poorly differentiated, high-grade tumors and is predictive of diseases recurrence, and for decreased overall patient survival. Therefore, LOXL2 expression may serve as a biomarker for breast cancer. Mechanistically, hydrogen peroxide is produced as a byproduct of LOXL2 when using an appropriate substrate, lysine. We exploited this chemistry to generate a revolutionary gold-based electrochemical biosensor capable of accurately detecting nanomolar quantities of LOXL2 in mouse blood, and in human blood samples. Two different sources of the blood samples obtained from breast cancer patients were used in this study indicating the applicability of detecting LOXL2 in breast cancers patients. Limited numbers of urine specimens from breast cancer patients were also tested. Collectively, all of these tests show the promise and potential of this biosensor for detecting LOXL2 as a surrogate biomarker of breast cancer. This work is described in WO 052962 A1 (2014).


Biomarker; lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2); metastasis of breast cancers; thin gold film biosensor

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