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Nefrologia. 2018 Mar - Apr;38(2):141-151. doi: 10.1016/j.nefro.2017.06.004. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Protein-energy wasting syndrome in advanced chronic kidney disease: prevalence and specific clinical characteristics.

[Article in English, Spanish]

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Unidad de Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Santa Cristina, Madrid, España. Electronic address:
Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital Universitario La Paz. IdiPAZ, Madrid, España.
Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, España.



Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%.


To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA).


Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men) with a mean age of 66.1±16 years. The nutritional assessment consisted of: SGA, PEW criteria, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis.


The prevalence of PEW was 30.1%, with significant differences between men and women (22.8 vs. 33.8%, p < 0.005), while 27.9% of SGA values were within the range of malnutrition. No differences were found between the 2methods. Men had higher proteinuria, percentage of muscle mass and nutrient intake. Women had higher levels of total cholesterol, HDL and a higher body fat percentage. The characteristics of patients with PEW were low albumin levels and a low total lymphocyte count, high proteinuria, low fat and muscle mass and a high Na/K ratio. The multivariate analysis found PEW to be associated with: proteinuria (OR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.084-1.457, p=0.002), percentage of fat intake (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.893-0.983, p=0.008), total lymphocyte count (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998-0.999, p=0.001) and cell mass index (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.992-0.998).


Malnutrition was identified in Spanish advanced CKD patients measured by different tools. We consider it appropriate to adapt new diagnostic elements to PEW criteria.


Advanced chronic kidney disease; Body composition; Composición corporal; Desgaste; Diet; Dieta; Enfermedad renal crónica avanzada; Estado nutricional; Malnutrición; Malnutrition; Nutrición; Nutrition; Nutritional status; Wasting

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