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1.
PLoS One. 2017 May 10;12(5):e0177351. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177351. eCollection 2017.

Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 "Gait Keeper" mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters.

Author information

1
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
2
Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
3
The Swedish Trotting Association, Bromma, Sweden.
4
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
5
Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.
6
Capilet Genetics AB, Västerås, Sweden.
7
Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
8
Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT) is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C) to adenine (A) in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3) gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age). Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications) were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs.

PMID:
28489879
PMCID:
PMC5425215
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0177351
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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2.
J Hered. 2015 Nov-Dec;106(6):734-40. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esv062. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Different DMRT3 Genotypes Are Best Adapted for Harness Racing and Riding in Finnhorses.

Author information

1
From the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden (Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Johansson, Andersson, Velie, Andersson, and Lindgren); Suomen Hippos ry, Espoo, Finland (Mäenpää); Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (Mykkänen); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (Andersson); and IHBC AB, Knubbo, Morgongåva, Sweden (Árnason).
2
From the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden (Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Johansson, Andersson, Velie, Andersson, and Lindgren); Suomen Hippos ry, Espoo, Finland (Mäenpää); Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (Mykkänen); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (Andersson); and IHBC AB, Knubbo, Morgongåva, Sweden (Árnason). gabriella.lindgren@slu.se.

Abstract

Previous studies showed a positive effect of the DMRT3 "gait keeper" mutation on harness racing performance in Standardbreds, French-, and Nordic trotters. The mutation has also been shown to influence riding traits in multiple breeds. This study investigated the effect of the DMRT3 mutation on harness racing performance and riding traits in Finnhorses. Finnhorses used for harness racing (n = 180) and for riding (n = 59) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. For the trotters the genotypes were evaluated for association with racing performance (number of starts, victories, placings, earnings, and race times). At 3-6 years of age the AA genotype was superior compared with the CA and CC genotypes. The AA horses had a significantly higher proportion of victories (P = 1.4×10(-6)) and placings (P = 4.1×10(-7)), better race times (P = 0.01), and earned more money (P = 0.009) compared with C-horses. For the Finnhorses used for riding the owners answered a questionnaire to score how well the horse performed the gaits walk, trot, and canter on a scale from 1 to 6. These scores were tested for association with the DMRT3 genotypes. Although AA horses were more successful as racehorses, the CC and CA horses appear more adapted for classical riding disciplines. The AA horses received significantly lower gait scores compared with C-horses for the majority of gaits. Except for rhythm in extended canter (P = 0.05), there were no significant differences between CA and CC horses. This study shows that there are different optimal genotypes for different disciplines and the DMRT3 mutation clearly influences gaits and performance in Finnhorses.

KEYWORDS:

competition data; gaits; horse; nonsense mutation; riding traits.

PMID:
26285915
DOI:
10.1093/jhered/esv062
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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