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Expert Rev Proteomics. 2016 Jun;13(6):609-26. doi: 10.1080/14789450.2016.1190651.

Current state of the art for enhancing urine biomarker discovery.

Author information

1
a Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine , George Mason University , Manassas , VA , USA.
2
b Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry , George Mason University , Manassas , VA , USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Urine is a highly desirable biospecimen for biomarker analysis because it can be collected recurrently by non-invasive techniques, in relatively large volumes. Urine contains cellular elements, biochemicals, and proteins derived from glomerular filtration of plasma, renal tubule excretion, and urogenital tract secretions that reflect, at a given time point, an individual's metabolic and pathophysiologic state.

AREAS COVERED:

High-resolution mass spectrometry, coupled with state of the art fractionation systems are revealing the plethora of diagnostic/prognostic proteomic information existing within urinary exosomes, glycoproteins, and proteins. Affinity capture pre-processing techniques such as combinatorial peptide ligand libraries and biomarker harvesting hydrogel nanoparticles are enabling measurement/identification of previously undetectable urinary proteins. Expert commentary: Future challenges in the urinary proteomics field include a) defining either single or multiple, universally applicable data normalization methods for comparing results within and between individual patients/data sets, and b) defining expected urinary protein levels in healthy individuals.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarker; Lyme Disease; combinatorial peptide ligand libraries; diabetes; glycoprotein; hydrogel nanoparticles; mass spectrometry; protein; proteomics; selected reaction monitoring; urine

PMID:
27232439
PMCID:
PMC4978532
DOI:
10.1080/14789450.2016.1190651
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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